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    Home : Country Guide : Bosnia and Herzegovina

   Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Guide


Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a policing capacity.



Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina Full Name: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Area: 51,129 sq km (water: 0 sq km, land: 51,129 sq km)
Population: 3,861,912 (July 2016 est.)
Capital City: Sarajevo

People: Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1%
note: the methodology remains disputed and Republika Srspka authorities refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)
Language: Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
Religion: Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)

Government Type: Parliamentary Republic
Chief of State Chairman of the Presidency Mladen IVANIC (chairman since 17 November 2016, presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat); Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak)
Head of Government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)

GDP: $US 42.53 billion (2016 est.)
GDP per Capita: $US 11,000 (2016 est.)
Inflation: -0.8% (2016 est.)
Unemployment: 43.2% (2015 est.)
Industries: Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)
Currency: Marka (BAM)

Member of EU: No



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Info provided by the CIA World Factbook
Updated 2/2017
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